EJONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON MATHEMATICS, ENGINEERING & NATURAL SCIENCES ISSN 2602 - 4136

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Abstract


PROTECTION WAYS FROM DISEASES THAT CAN BE CAUSED BY IONIZING AND IONONIZING RADIATION AND ANALYSIS OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY BASE

Radiation can be defined as transfering or spreading energy from one point to another or from one environment to another depending on the extent of radiation exposure, the atomic or cellular structure it exposes may deteriorate. Atomic structure in the ionizing radiation is changed but atomic structure in the noising radiation is not changed. Ionizing rays are divided into two groups as wave type and particle type. X-rays and gamma rays; alpha, beta and free neutrons can be given as examples of particulate ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing rays are also divided into two groups: optical rays (such as ultraviolet rays) and electromagnetic radiation (such as microwaves, radio waves). There are several factors that determine the damage to radiation.Type of radiation is important. The wavelength changes according to its type and its damage increases or decreases. The intensity of radiation and the duration of exposure are also determinants of the damage. Ionizing radiation has many damages. Acute beam syndrome, lung cancer, skin and mucosal damage, eye damage, bones are the main damage. Living things can receive radiation from both natural and artificial sources. Approximately 85% of the radiation we are affected by daily life is natural and 15% is composed of artificial sources. Natural resources can be any kind of radioactive sources around us. For example, the rays coming from the sun, the air we breathe, the food we eat, the building materials of our houses (cosmic rays, radon gas, gamma ray, etc.). Artificial sources can be phosphorus watches and radioactive substances, some consumer products, medical devices, some industry and agricultural materials, nuclear tests and power plants, all kinds of electronic and electrical devices lightning rods etc. Radiation has become an indispensable part of our lives. Electromagnetic waves are exist almost everywhere. Therefore, we live in an electromagnetic aquarium. The food we eat, the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the radiation we use can be found in almost all kinds of goods. All electrical machines,mobile phones, the base stations, shaver,television, from the washing machine to the hair dryer emit non-ionizing radiation. In daily life, we must be aware of the negative effects of the radiation, how we live, how we should learn the benefits, benefits and losses. We are exposed to radiation almost everywhere and instantly. However, in some working environments, workers who are exposed to much more radiation can be exposed to various diseases by the effect of this excess radiation. Especially employees who work in the departments of radiology and nuclear medicine in hospitals use x-ray, tomography or mammography or positron emission tomography are exposed to radiation. Moreover, the risks of being exposed to radiation from nuclear reactors and the risk of being exposed to more radiation from the workers in the radiotherapy area used for cancer treatment are more amplifying to other employees. In this study, the most important diseases which may be caused by radiation were revealed and the analysis was made on the basis of protection from diseases and occupational health and safety.



Keywords
Radiation, electromagnetic wave,nuclear medicine



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