EJONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON MATHEMATICS, ENGINEERING & NATURAL SCIENCES ISSN 2602 - 4136

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Abstract


BENEFICIAL MICROBIOTA OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

Probiotic and prebiotic foods enhance the growth of healthy microorganisms in body.Probiotics are the healthy microflora that live in digestive tract and prebiotics are the nutrients that they use to thrive. Synbiotic products combine probiotics and prebiotics to enhance their beneficial effects. The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Many microbial species live commensally on mucosal tissues of the nose, mouth, and GI tract. Probiotics and prebiotics may help normalize a gut microbiota disturbed by antibiotics or other stressors and improve health of people.Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. The introduction of probiotics and prebiotics into human diet is favorable for the intestinal microbiota. Abiotic components are dead cell components (such as enzymes), metabolic by-products (bioactive peptides), and others.Probiotics, probiotics and synbiotics have systemic effects on the host’s health metabolism and immune system. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Most commonly used probiotic strains are present in Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillusand Saccharomyces boulardii. Some of the prebiotics are inulin, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and short-chain fatty acids. Prebiotics are the most commonly used fibers which when used together with probiotics are termed synbiotics and are able to improve the viability of the probiotics. Synbiotics aid digestion and absorption of nutrients, synthesize certain vitamins and amino acids, and improve immune function. They also keep the pathogens in check by crowding them out or secreting substances that reduce their numbers. Dietary fiber is not digested in the small intestines, when it makes its way to the large intestines, the healthy bacteria break it down releasing short chain fatty acids.Utilization of prebiotics by probiotics should be a pre-requisite in order to maintain a good synergy and maximize the beneficial effects.Nonviable probiotics exert beneficial effects on the health of people.



Keywords
Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotic, Microbiota



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